SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
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과학과 교육과정 성취기준의 인지적 영역에 대한 국어교육전공자와 과학교육전공자의 해석 차이:설명하기를 중심으로

The Difference between the Interpretations of Korean Language Experts and Science Education Experts on the Cognitive Domain of Science Achievement Standards: Focus on `Explain`

송은정, 제민경, 차경미, 유준희, 한국과학교육학회지, Volume 37, Number 2 (2017)

ABSTRACT

과학과 교육과정은 모든 독자가 집필자의 의도를 정확히 해석할 수 있도록 서술되어야 한다. 본 연구에서는 과학과 교육과정 성취기준에 대한 국어교육전공자의 해석을 살펴보고, 국어교육전공자와 과학교육전공자의 해석 차이가 나타나는 경우를 분석함으로써, 교과 내용 전공자와 비전공자가 이해를 공유할 수 있도록 성취기준을 진술하는 방법에 대해 알아보았다. 국어교육전공자 3인은 `국어교육전공자의 과학과 성취기준 분석틀`을 이용했으며, 과학교육전공자 3인은 `TIMSS 인지적 영역 평가틀`을 기반으로 분석하였다. 두 교과의 해석 차이가 나타나는 부분은 면담을 통해 그 이유를 알아보았다. 연구 결과에 따르면, 국어교육전공자와 과학교육전공자는 `설명`, `분석`, `정의`, `인과` 등의 용어에 대한 시각차를 가지고 있었다. 성취 기준이 포괄적 의미의 서술어로 진술된 경우 해석이 다양하게 분포하였으며, 과학과 성취기준이 `설명할 수 있다`의 서술어를 자주 사용하고 있음에도 불구하고 국어과의 해석에 따르면 이들 대부분이 설명하기의 하위항목보다 묘사하기의 하위 항목으로 분석되었다. 과학교육전공자는 부사어나 관형어 등으로 표현되는 과정적 지식을 강조하여 해석하는 반면 국어교육전공자는 목적어, 서술어 등 문장의 필수 요소에 강조점을 두어 해석하는 경우에 두 교과의 해석 차이가 발생하였다. 또한 과학교육전공자는 성취기준 문장에서 내용의 범위나 수준에 대한 정보가 충분히 제공되지 않은 경우 암묵적 지식을 기반으로 해석하였으나 국어교육전공자는 문장 구조에만 의존하여 표면적 의미를 해석하여 두 교과의 해석 차이가 발생했다. 교육과정에서 성취기준을 진술할 때 도달해야 할 목표 개념의 범위와 인지적 영역의 수준을 부사어 및 관형어를 포함한 행동 동사로 적확하게 기술하며, 국어교육전공자를 포함한 다양한 전공 영역의 전문가가 검토함으로써 집필자의 의도대로 해석되도록 문장 구조를 명료하게 진술하는 것이 바람직하다. 이와 같이 성취기준이 나타내고자 하는 인지적 영역을 타 교과와 연계하여 분석하고 진술함으로써 교과 융합적 개선 방안을 마련하는 것이 요구된다.

The texts in the national science curriculum documents are expected to be interpreted in the same meaning as that of the authors. In this study, the science achievement standards in national curriculum documents were examined through an analysis of the differences between the interpretations of Korean language education experts and science education experts. Three Korean language education experts designed and utilized an analysis framework on science curriculum standards from their viewpoints while three science education experts utilized TIMSS cognitive domain framework to analyze the 2009 Korean revised science curriculum achievement standards. The differences between interpretations of both groups were analyzed qualitatively through interviews. First of all, the two groups seemed to have different meanings for terms such as “explain,” “analyze,” “define,” and “cause and effect.” The science achievement standards described by general verbs like “explain” were interpreted in various ways. The verb “explain” that appears many times in the science achievement standards seem to be representing the “describe” subsections in the framework of Korean language education expert rather than the “explain” subsections of the framework of science education experts. Science education experts seemed to focus on prepositional phrases, which indicate inquiry process, while Korean language education experts seemed to focus on objective phrases. Moreover, the science education experts would interpret the achievement standards based on their background knowledge while the Korean language education experts would interpret them based on the structure of the sentences. This study suggests that achievement standards should specifically indicate the levels and scopes of cognitive domain as well as the knowledge domain. Also, integrations of achievement standards in cognitive domains of Korean language and science subjects should be considered.

 

과학적 모델의 사회적 구성 수업을 통한 과학 영재 학생들의 모델링 능력 변화

The Change in Modeling Ability of Science-Gifted Students through the Co-construction of Scientific Model

박희경, 최종림, 김찬종, 김희백, 유준희, 장신호, 최승언, 한국과학교육학회지, Volume 36, Number 1 (2016)

ABSTRACT

본 연구의 목적은 과학적 모델의 사회적 구성 수업을 통한 학생들의 모델링 능력 변화를 ‘모델과 모델링에 관한 인식’과 ‘모델링 실행’의 두 측면으로 살펴보는 것이다. 이를 위해, 중학교 2학년 학생 41명을 대상으로 천문학 내용과 관련하여 과학적 모델의 사회적 구성 수업을 실시하고, 수업 전과 후에 각각 모델링 능력 검사를 실시하였다.검사 결과 학생들의 ‘모델과 모델링에 관한 인식’은 과학적 모델의 사회적 구성 수업을 통해 더 진보된 관점으로 변화하였다. 학생들은 사회적 구성 활동을 통해 모델을 이용하여 자신의 생각을 표현할 수있다는 것과, 하나의 현상을 설명할 수 있는 복수의 과학적 모델이 존재하며, 과학적 모델이 변화할 수 있음을 인식하게 되었다. 학생들의 ‘모델링 실행’의 변화는 사전과 사후의 수준 변화에 따라 4 가지유형(모델링 수준 상승 유형, 모델링 수준 하강 유형, 높은 수준 유지유형, 낮은 수준 유지 유형)으로 나누어졌다. 과학적 모델의 사회적구성 수업을 통해 대부분의 학생들의 ‘모델링 실행’ 수준이 상승하였다. 이러한 변화는 학생들로 하여금 자신의 모델을 다른 모델과 비교하고 경쟁할 수 있는 기회를 제공한 사회적 구성 활동에 영향을 받은것으로 나타났다. 한편, 일부의 학생들은 오히려 ‘모델링 실행’ 수준이 내려가거나 변화가 없었다. 이 학생들의 학교 과학 성적은 비교적 우수했으며, 정확한 정답을 찾아 시험에서 좋은 성적을 얻는 것을 학습의 목표로 여기고 있었다. 이것은 전통적인 수업방식에 길들여진 학생들이 증거를 기반으로 지식을 구성해가는 과정을 중시하는 과학적 모델의 사회적 구성 수업 방식에 더 큰 어려움을 겪을 수 있다는것을 말해준다.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of students’ modeling ability in terms of ‘meta-modeling knowledge’ and ‘modeling practice’ through co-construction of scientific model. Co-construction of scientific model instructions about astronomy were given to 41 middle-school students. The students were given a before and after instruction modeling ability tests. The results show that students’ ‘meta-modeling knowledge’ has changed into a more scientifically advanced thinking about models and modeling after the instruction. Students were able to be aware that ‘they could express their thoughts using models’, ‘many models could be used to explain a single phenomena’ and ‘scientific models may change’ through co-construction modeling process. The change in the ‘modeling practice’ of the students was divided into four cases (the level improving, the level lowering, the high-level maintaining, the low-level maintaining) depending on the change of pre-posttest levels. The modeling practice level of most students has improved through the instruction. These changes were influenced by co-construction process that provides opportunities to compete and compare their models to other models. Meanwhile, the modeling practice level of few students has lowered or maintained low level. Science score of these students at school was relatively high and they thought that the goal of learning is to get a higher score in exams by finding the correct answer. This means that students who were kept well under traditional instruction may feel harder to adapt to co-construction of scientific model instruction, which focuses more on the process of constructing knowledge based on evidences.

 

2009 개정 과학과 교육과정의 성취기준에 사용된 서술어 분석 -TIMSS 인지적 영역 평가틀을 중심으로-

Analysis of the Verbs in the 2009 Revised National Science Curriculum-from the Viewpoint of Cognitive Domain of TIMSS Assessment Framework

송은정, 제민경, 차경미, 유준희, 한국과학교육학회지, Volume 36, Number 4 (2016)

ABSTRACT

2009 개정 과학과 교육과정의 성취기준에서 사용되고 있는 서술어는 ‘안다(38%)’와 ‘이해한다(46%)’가 80% 이상을 차지하고 있다. 많은 독자들은 ‘안다’, ‘이해한다’와 같이 포괄적 의미의 서술어로 진술 된 문장의 의미를 해석하는 데 어려움을 가진다. 한편 수학·과학 성취도 추이변화 국제비교 연구(TIMSS)에서는 인지적 영역을 다양하고 구체적인 수준의 동사를 사용하여 서술하고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 2009 개정 과학과 교육과정의 성취기준을 TIMSS 인지적 영역 평가틀을 중심으로 분석하였다. 3인의 교사가 분석에 참여하였으며, 분석자별 해석 차이가 발생한 경우에는 연구자와의 면담을 통해 그 이유를 알아보았다. 교사 3인의 분석 결과 구체적 의미의 서술어를 사용할수록 공통된 해석을 얻었고, 포괄적 의미의 서술어를 사용한 경우 각기 다양한 인지적 영역으로 해석되었다. 특히 ‘안다’라는 서술어로 진술된 성취기준은 ‘기술하기(Describe)(27%)’, ‘회상하기/인식하 기(Recall/Recognize)(25%)’, ‘관련짓기(Relate)(17%)’ 등으로 해석되었고, ‘이해한다’라는 서술어로 진술된 성취기준은 ‘설명하기(Explain) (37%)’, ‘관련짓기(Relate)(27%)’, ‘기술하기(Describe) (21%)’등으로 해석되었다. 교사들이 성취기준을 해석하는 과정에서 의견이 불일치한 경우는 ‘안다’, ‘이해한다’와 같이 포괄적인 서술어가 사용된 동시에 해당 학년에서 가르칠 개념의 수준과 범위를 모호하게 진술한 경 우로 해석된다. 성취기준이 뜻하는 바를 명확하게 표현하기 위해서 성취기준 문장의 서술어 진술 방식에 대한 논의가 지속적으로 이루어질 필요가 있다.

In the 2009 revised science curriculum, comprehensive verbs such as ‘know (38%)’ and ‘understand (46%)’ are used in more than 80% of the achievement standard. Many readers, such as teachers, textbook makers, etc. have difficulties in interpreting the meaning of achievement standard sentences with these comprehensive verbs. On the other hand, ‘Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)’ uses more various and specific verbs to express the cognitive domain. In this study, we analyzed the 2009 revised science curriculum achievement standard focusing on the TIMSS cognitive domain assessment framework. We divided achievement standard to 228 sentences and three teachers analyzed the meaning of verbs in achievement standard. There were two main results of this study. First, the verb ‘Know’ was analyzed into different kinds of meanings, such as ‘Describe (27%)’, ‘Recall/Recognize (25%)’ and ‘Relate (17%)’, etc; and the verb ‘Understand’ was analyzed into ‘Explain (37%)’, ‘Relate (27%)’ and ‘Describe (21%)’, etc. Second, there appeared to have a disagreement among the three analysts during the process of interpreting the achievement standards when the level and scope of the contents of each grade is not clear. This study concludes that there’s a need for continuous discussion on the use of verbs in achievement standard to promote clearer expressions for better understanding.

 

열음향 냉각 현상에 대한 대학생의 모형구성

College-Students’ Modeling of Thermoacoustic Refrigeration Phenomena

이동욱, 유준희, 새물리, Volume 66, Number 6 (2016)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study is to understand the college-students' modeling of thermoacoustic refrigeration phenomena and to make suggestions for physics education. To understand the phenomena, microscopic movement of air parcel with pressure change by acoustic wave needs to be modeled. Then, the heat exchange between a gas parcel and stacks can be modeled. A pre-test of a refrigerator cycle was performed by college students enrolled in thermodynamics; then, their modeling of the cycle was investigated. A basic model for an action at the component level and an emergent model to explain how stacks cause temperature gradients due to heat exchange were constructed by using scientific modeling. Both the basic and emergent models constructed by using scientific modeling showed an understanding of both the symbolic knowledge of the p-V diagram for a Brayton cycle and the 1st law of thermodynamics. The basic model constructed by using unscientific modeling provided only a native explanation of how stacks cause a temperature gap as a heat conductor. In this case, the symbolic knowledge and models do not agree. The study suggests instructive modeling strategies in which critical phenomena are introduced and makes symbolic knowledge and models coherent.

 

학교 현장 보급을 위한 저가형 ESPI의 구성

Development of Low-Cost ESPI for a School Environment

박정우, 유준희, 새물리, Volume 66, Number 11 (2016)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to develop a low-cost electronic speckle pattern interferometer (ESPI) for a school environment. This ESPI can be built for a small fraction of the cost of a commercial version. This interferometer is constructed with a few optical components and a web cam. The vibration modes of a circular plate can be visualized in real time by using a desktop computer and a LabView program written by the author. A material that connects the hologram image of each mode and the FFT graph can be used as an example of connecting abstract and concrete representations in school. If the ESPI is to be used in a school environment, the education content must be deveploped. In addition, a high-resolution camera is needed, the LabView program must be improved and the experimental conditions must be optimized.

 

2009 개정 물리1의 지도 교사가 인식한 물리1 내용 적정성 및 어려움

강현식, 이일, 진수영, 안재익, 유준희, 새물리, Volume 65, Number 2 (2015)

ABSTRACT

This study aims to examine teachers' perceptions of the physics Icourse in the 2009 Revised National Curriculum. For this purpose, we conducted an online survey with 35 high-school physics teachers. Most of the participating teachers indicated that the content of the physics I course was excessive compared to the allotted teaching time. Although the content related to cutting-edge technology and modern physics might induce students' interests in physics, but much of the content was regarded as difficult for students and teachers. Some content needs to be reduced or deleted because its relevance to the organization of the content is very inappropriate. Teachers had difficulties in providing effective instruction and were worried that the new curriculum would lead students to superficial learning and would not improve higher thinking. The number of concepts should be reduced to an appropriate level in consideration of the time allotted for physics classes.

 

연소 모델의 사회적 구성과정에서 나타나는 소집단 활동 특징 탐색

Exploring Small Group Features of the Social-Construction Process of Scientific Model in a Combustion Class

심영숙, 김찬종, 최승언, 김희백, 유준희, 박현주, 김혜영, 박경미, 장신호, 한국과학교육학회지, Volume 35, Number 2 (2015)

ABSTRACT

본 연구의 목적은 연소 모델의 사회적 구성 과정에서 나타나는 소집단 활동의 특징을 살펴보는 것이었다. 본 연구를 위해, 중학교 2학년 1개 반을 대상으로, 8개의 소집단으로 나누고, 각 소집단이 3차례의 논의를 통해 연소에 관한 모델 구성을 하도록 MIS과정에 따라 2차시로 수업을 구성하였다. 수업 내용 및 학생과 학생, 학생과 교사의 담화 내용은 비디오 촬영 및 녹음을 한 후 전사하여 분석하였다. 분석 결과, 소집단별 모델 생성에서 협력 유형은 비협동형인 나열형과 의존형, 협동형이 있었으며, 모델 생성과정을 경험함에 따라 2개의 소집단을 제외한 6개의 소집단이 협동형으로 발달하였다. 또한 연소에 관한 모델의 발달을 살펴본 결과, 플로지스톤설에서 산소설로 발전하는 과정에서 나타난 과학자들의 사고와 비슷한 사고 발달이 보였으며, 이를 통해 연소현상에 대한 이해가 발전되고 현상을 설명할 수 있는 모델로 발전하는 것이 나타났다. 협동형 소집단 중 구성원간의 존중, 리더의 민주적인 태도가 높을수록 목표 모델 도달 횟수가 높았다. 또한 성공적인 모델 생성을 위해서는 구성한 모델에 대한 소집단 내, 소집단 간비판적 검토가 필요하며, 교사의 도움을 모델 수정과 평가에 활용할 줄 아는 능력 또한 요구됨을 알 수 있었다. 이 연구는 과학 모델의 사회적 구성 과정이 학생들의 현상에 대한 이해를 높이는 과학 탐구의 한 방법으로서 교육적으로 의미가 있으며, 모델링 수업 중 교사의 역할에 대한 시사점을 얻는데 그 의의가 있다.

In this study, we explored the development of scientific model through the social-construction process on “combustion.” Students were 8th graders from one middle school class. Each student engaged in small group discussions three times and made a group model on combustion. Discourses between peers and teacher were videotaped, audiotaped, and transcribed. The results show that the small groups constructed an initial concept: ‘Conditions of combustion’, which they then evaluated and revised the initial concept through combustion experiment. Following the discussions, some small groups evaluated their model and made a revised model. Then, the small groups compared various models and constructed a scientific model through consensus within the small group and as a whole class. Finally, students kept revising their model to ‘Burning needs oxygen.’ This tells us that the social construction process of scientific model made a meaningful role to build scientific model through diverse discussion between the students and their teacher, although they have had some difficult process to reach the final consensus. The data also showed some group features: the members were open to other`s ideas. They analyzed the differences between their own ideas from others and revised their model after the whole class discussion. Lastly, they showed the tendency to make a good use of teacher`s guidance. This study implies the importance of having social interaction process for students to understand the scientific model and learn the nature of scientific inquiry in class.

 

수학, 과학 교과 중등교원양성 교육과정의 현장 적합성 분석

A Study on Site Suitability of the Secondary School Teacher Education Curriculum Focusing on Science and Math Subject

김승정, 이수정, 신정철, 김재근, 유준희, 이경화, 홍훈기, 강은정, 권정희, 김은경, 김지애, 김현숙, 이일, 정태실, 아시아교육연구, Volume 16, Number 4 (2015)

ABSTRACT

이 연구는 중등교원양성 교육과정을 개선하고 학교 현장과의 유기적 연계를 모색하기 위하여 중등교원양성 교육과정의 교육현장 적합성을 분석하고, 이를 높이기 위한 방안을 탐색하였다. 연구목적을 달성하기 위하여 과학, 수학 교사를 대상으로 한 설문조사와 교수 및 교사를 대상으로 전문가집단면담(Focus Group Interview)을 실시하였다. 이 연구에 의하면 중등교원양성 교육과정은 ‘투철한 교직관’을 함양하고, ‘교과전문성’ 역량을 충족시킴으로써 교육자의 자질과 전문성을 높이는 데 기여하고 있다. 그러나 중등교원양성과정은 학교업무와 교수학습사태의 실제, 학생에 대한 이해 및 상담, 진로 지도 등의 실천적 역량 함양에 있어서는 다소 미흡한 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 면담 결과에 의하면 중등교원양성 교육과정의 현장 적합성이 낮게 나타나는 이유로 교육 시간의 부족과 대규모 강의, 학습자의 능동적 참여 감소, 통합적 교과내용의 증가, 이론과 현장의 괴리 등의 문제점이 제기되었다. 전문가집단면담의 결과, 교원양성과정의 장기적 개선방안을 마련하기 위하여 검토가 필요한 사항으로는 교과내용학적 관점에서 교원양성 교육과정의 학문적 정체성 정립, 교과교육학의 관점에서 예비 교사 교육의 수준과 범위의 재설정 등을 제안하고 있다.

The purpose of this study is to explore the suitability of secondary school teacher education curriculum on science and math subjects in actual school site. For analysis, this study analyzed survey which measured secondary school teachers’ demands for site suitability and also the study conducted focus group interview to support the finding. According to the survey results, teachers responded that their teacher education curriculum did not provide direct effect on their teaching practice but the major course education played relatively more important role. Also, it was found that teachers were perceiving that their teacher education curriculum helped them improving teaching philosophy and subject professionalism. However, the curriculum was not sufficient for improving various practical matters such as school administrative works, student consulting skills and career advise. According to the focus group interview, participants perceived various environmental changes such as lack of training hours, large size lecture, change in learner"s participatory attitude, gap between theory and practice and introduction of new theories into school curriculum. This study suggested following policy implication that can improve the site suitability of teacher education such as providing activities based on student development, educating teachers to teach core concepts for students and integrate various subjects. Lastly, main issues regarding site suitability was found as following such as necessity of designing curriculum that considers career uncertainty of teacher"s college students, defining academic characteristics of science and math education and reinforcing teacher education curriculum-professional training program relations

 

초등 4학년 학생들의 과학 관련 진로 포부와 과학 정체성 관계의 변화

The Change of the Relationship between Korean 4th Graders` Career Aspirations in Science and Science Identities

강은희, 김찬종, 최승언, 노태희, 유준희, 김희백, 한국과학교육학회지, Volume 35, Number 5 (2015)

ABSTRACT

본 연구에서는 과학 정체성 개념을 사용하여, 과학에 대한 흥미는 높지만 과학 관련 진로에 대한 포부가 낮았던 초등 4학년 학생들의 진로 포부의 변화를 설명하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 연구목적에 맞는 참여자를 선별하였고, 14명의 학생을 대상으로 2회(4학년, 5학년)의 심층면담을 실시하였다. 과학 경험에 대한 학생들의 설문조사, 교사로 부터 제공받은 자료 또한 심층면담 자료를 뒷받침하는 보조 자료로 사용하였다. 1차면담(4학년)에서 과학 관련 진로에 대한 포부가 낮았던 14명의 학생들은 2차면담(5학년)에서 다양한 변화를 보여주었는데, 6명은 지속적으로 낮은 진로 포부를, 6명은 보통의 진로 포부를, 그리고 2명은 높은 진로 포부를 보였다. 이 가운데 세 명의 초점 학생을 선정하였고, 과학 정체성 요소와 진로 포부의 관계를 깊이있게 탐색하였다. 연구 결과, 진로와 관련하여 개인마다 가치를 두는 과학 정체성 요소가 달랐으며(윤우는 타인의 평가, 태우는 자신의 흥미, 인제는 과학 능력), 이러한 요소에 따라 요소들 사이의, 그리고 요소와 과학 관련 진로 포부 사이의 상호작용은 개인마다 다른 양상을 보여주었다. 시간이 흐르면서 참여자들이 겪은 경험과 주변의 타인들과의 상호작용은 과학 정체성 요소의 변화에 영향을 주었고, 이는 요소들 사이의 상호작용을 통한 과학 관련 진로 포부의 변화로 이어졌다. 동료와의 관계에 대한 인식(나에 대한 동료의 평가와 동료에 대한 나의 평가에 대한 인식)과 과학 관련 진로에 대한 인식 또한 학생들이 자신에 대해 판단하고 과학 관련 진로에 대한 포부를 형성하는데 중요하게 영향을 미치고 있어, 이를 고려한 주변의 지원과 과학 관련 진로에 대한 안내가 필요함을 제안한다.

This study sought to explore longitudinal changes in Korean fourth graders’ career aspirations in science. The sample included those who had high interest, but low career aspirations in science, and the analysis focused on the concept of science identity. To achieve this study’s objectives, we selected 14 participants and then conducted two in-depth interviews with them. Compared with the first interviews (4th grade), changes were observed in eight students’ career aspirations in science in the second round (5th grade). While six students maintained “negative” career aspiration, six revealed “medium” and two revealed “positive” career aspiration in science. To explore the relationship between science identities and career aspirations in science, three students were selected from the sample for further study. According to the results, the aspects of science identity that students valued regarding potential careers varied individually. Depending on these aspects, each student showed different patterns in the interactions between different aspects of science identity, and between aspects of science identity and science-related career aspirations. Over time, participants’ experiences and interactions with people around them produced changes in their science identity, which led to changes in their career aspirations resulting from the interactions between aspects of their science identity. Their career aspirations in science were also significantly influenced by each participant’s perceptions of relationships with peers (i.e., recognition by peers and of peers) and of science-related careers. Therefore, the results suggest that students need to be provided with appropriate learning environments and guidance relating to science careers.

 

비형식 환경에서 초등학생의 과학관련 참여 현황과 특징 -빈도와 동반인을 중심으로-

The Current Conditions and the Characteristics of Elementary Students` Science-Related Engagement in Informal Setting -Focusing on Frequency and Companion-

이정아, 최종림, 박은지, 최승언, 김희백, 노태희, 유준희, 이경우, 계영희, 김찬종, 초등과학교육, Volume 33, Number 1 (2014)

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to find out the current conditions and the characteristics of elementary students` science related engagement in informal education setting. For this, we conducted a survey targeting 645 6th grader elementary students of three elementary school in Seoul. The results were described as following aspects: first, the place, the engagement frequency, and companies of students` science-related activity in informal setting, second, the characteristics of engagement based on homogeneity analysis. Based on these results, we suggested several ways to encourage students` science-related engagement in informal education setting.

 

표면 전하분포모형을 강조한 전기회로에 대한 중등학생의 이해

Secondary-students’ Understandings of Electric Circuits Focusing on the Surface Charge Model

김승만, 유준희, 새물리, Volume 64, Number 2 (2014)

ABSTRACT

Learning and teaching sequences for electric circuits focusing on the surface charge model aim to link the microscopic model of electrostatic to macroscopic parameters such as the current and the voltage of the electric circuit. Potential differences between surface charges are used to describe electric circuits. Some attempts have been made to introduce a surface charge model to introductory physics courses, but not to secondary school physics courses. The purpose of this study is to determine secondary-studentsï understandings of the surface charge model and to identify difficulties they have in using that model. Traditionally, in secondary school physics courses in Korea, the unit on electrostatic fields and the unit on electric circuits are separate. Aa s result of study, suggestions for improving the units on electric circuits are proposed.

 

과학 관련 활동에 대한 초등학생의 선호 및 참여와 관련된 요인 탐색

An Exploration of the Factors Related with Preference for and Participation in Science-related Activities of Elementary School Student

양찬호, 조준모, 김찬종, 최승언, 김희백, 유준희, 이경우, 계영희, 노태희, 초등과학교육, Volume 33, Number 3 (2014)

ABSTRACT

In this study, we explored the factors related with preference for and participation in science-related activities of elementary school students. We developed a questionnaire to measure the characteristics of students such as motivation toward science learning, science aspiration, family science orientation, parental educational level and occupation, and the degrees of preference and participation of science-related activities. The questionnaire was administered to about 400 fourth graders in Seoul. The results revealed that the students with higher motivation toward science learning and/or science aspiration preferred and participated more in most activities. It was also found that parental educational level and occupation did not make an appreciable difference in preference and participation. The students who perceived their parents to be science-oriented, however, preferred and participated more in most activities. These results may offer practical implications for effective uses of both school and out-of-school science activities in elementary science education.

 

과학 관련 진로에 대한 포부가 낮은 초등 4학년 학생들의 과학 정체성 탐색

Exploring Korean 4th Graders` Career Aspirations in Science with a Focus on Science Identity

강은희, 김찬종, 최승언, 노태희, 유준희, 심수연, 김희백, 한국과학교육학회지, Volume 34, Number 7 (2014)

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to explore why Korean 4th graders’ interest in science was not connected to career aspirations in science using the perspective of science identity. Forty-five students with a highinterest in science but with low science-related aspirations have been chosen from 488 elementary school students who have completed a questionnaire exploring students’ interest and career aspirations in science. Among them, 19 who have received parental permission participated in in-depth interviews examining students’ science identities (interest, competence, and recognition by others in science) and their experiences and perceptions of science-related activities. The results showed that most students have limited or situational interest in science, a gap between the perception of their competence in science and their competence for a science-related career, and negative recognition by others in science. Also,participants’ science identities and low aspirations for a science-related career constrained their attention and participation in science-related activities. Students’ negative science identities and low aspirations for science-related careers were based on the high standards of science-related careers. It seems thatthese erroneous perceptions and expectations led them to differentiate themselves from students pursuing science-related careers, as well as to perceive that their interest, competence, and recognition by others in science were not enough to pursue a science-related career. This study has implications for understandingthe current condition of young students with low aspirations for science careers and exploring desirable objectives and strategies to promote activities to raise their aspirations for science-related careers.

 

일반 직업 영역에서 물리 전공의 유용성에 대한 물리 전공자의 인식 조사

Physics Majors' Perceptions of the Usefulness of Majoring in Physics for the Workplace

진수영, 유준희, 새물리, Volume 64, Number 1 (2014)

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to investigate physics majors' perceptions of the usefulness of majoring in physics for the workplace to obtain suggestions on course and career education, as well as the physics curriculum. Thirty graduates were surveyed by using 8 multiple-choice questions. Physics majors perceived that they were good at problem solving, numeracy and technology, but weak at human relations, organizational skills and communication in the workplace. Good understanding and adaptation of new skills were regarded as strengths of physics majors. Physics majors pictured themselves as inflexible, critical and creative. The employment prospects of physics majors and the correspondence of the physics curriculum to social demands are not positive. The result that physics majors are recognized as essential human resources in various areas should be emphasized in course and career education. The instructional methods to enhance communication and collaborations, cutting-edge research trends, and information on the industrial sector should be a fundamental attribute of the physics curriculum and would improve physics curriculum.

 

연소의 과학적 모형형성 수업에서 나타난 중학생의 사회적 상호작용 특징

Characteristics of Social Interaction in Scientific Modeling Instruction on Combustion in Middle School

박현주, 김혜영, 장신호, 심영숙, 김찬종, 김희백, 유준희, 최승언, 박경미, 대한화학회지, Volume 58, Number 4 (2014)

ABSTRACT

이 연구는 연소의 과학적 모형형성 수업에서 나타난 중학생들의 사회적 상호작용의 특징을 문화적, 언어적 상호작용, 토론유형도(map)를 통해 분석한 것이다. 중학생의 연소에 대한 모형형성 과정을 사회적 상호작용 측면에서 CLEQ (Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire)를 살펴보고 모형형성 측면에서 언어적 상호작용, 토론유형도를 통해 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 중학생들의 문화적 특징은 경쟁보다는 협동 측면에서의 집단주의를 선호하지만 과학학습 태도는 타인의존적인 경향이 높고, 모형형성 과정에서 스스로의 의견을 소극적으로 제시하는 것으로 조사되었다. 둘째, 언어적 상호작용의 특징은 모형형성에 관련된 지식을 단순하게 제시한 형태가 많았고, 상대방의 의견에 대한 반응과 피드백을 하는 메타인지 영역이 상대적으로 낮게 나타난 것으로 조사되었다. 셋째, 토론유형도는 특정한 학생에 의존하여 의견제시만 하는 개념제시 상호작용과 응답진술을 반복하며 이루어지는 반응 상호작용이 많은 것으로 나타났고, 의견교환 할 때 새로운 의견제시, 수정, 근거를 들어 설명하는 등의 정교화 상호작용은 적은 것으로 조사되었다. 이 연구는 모형형성에 영향을 주는 상호작용 유형에 대한 이해와 우리나라 학생들의 상황을 고려한 사회적 상호작용을 위한 교수 설계의 기초 자료로 활용할 수 있을 것이다.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of social interaction on cultural aspects, verbal interaction, and discussion maps in scientific modeling instruction on combustion in middle school. Revised-CLEQ (Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire), verbal interaction framework, discussion maps analysis were implemented for this study. The results of study follow respectively. First, the characteristics on cultural aspects of middle school students showed cooperation rather than competition in terms of collectivism. Students' attitudes to learning science tended to depend on others' idea, and students were passive and reluctant to present their comments when they were modeling work. Second, for the characteristics of verbal interaction, they simply presented knowledge related to build a model. The response to comments and feedback was relatively few. Third, discussion maps showed a lot of interaction for reponses that was alternatively brought the concept of commenters, which students were depended on a specific one, and responses. There were not many interaction for elaboration, which were described to have new presented ideas, corrections, and reasons when they exchange their ideas. In this study the model type of interaction affecting the formation of the students understanding of and in our country, it makes a lot of social interactions as the basis for teaching system could be utilized.

 

과학 관련 활동에 대한 초등학생의 선호 및 참여와 관련된 요인 탐색

An Exploration of the Factors Related with Preference for and Participation in Science-related Activities of Elementary School Student

양찬호, 조준모, 김찬종, 최승언, 김희백, 유준희, 이경우, 계영희, 노태희, 조사연구, Volume 15, Number 4 (2014)

ABSTRACT

In this study, we explored the factors related with preference for and participation in science-related activities of elementary school students. We developed a questionnaire to measure the characteristics of students such as motivation toward science learning, science aspiration, family science orientation, parental educational level and occupation, and the degrees of preference and participation of science-related activities. The questionnaire was administered to about 400 fourth graders in Seoul. The results revealed that the students with higher motivation toward science learning and/or science aspiration preferred and participated more in most activities. It was also found that parental educational level and occupation did not make an appreciable difference in preference and participation. The students who perceived their parents to be science-oriented, however, preferred and participated more in most activities. These results may offer practical implications for effective uses of both school and out-of-school science activities in elementary science education.

 

이공계와 의약계 진로 희망 초등학생의 진로 선택 이유, 과학과목과 수학과목 선호도, 과학에 대한 흥미, 과학적 포부 비교

Comparison of Four Factors: Reasons for Jobs, Science and Math Preferences, Interests in Science, and Science Aspirations for Children Hoping for Careers in Science, Engineering or Medicine

김은숙, 안유민, 정원영, 계영희, 김희백, 노태희, 유준희, 이경우, 최승언, 김찬종, 한국과학교육학회지, Volume 34, Number 8 (2014)

ABSTRACT

이공계 또는 의약계 직업을 희망하는 초등학생의 진로선택이유, 과학/수학 과목 선호도, 과학에 대한 흥미, 과학적 포부를 조사하여. 과학 관련 진로지도에 시사점을 얻고자 하였다. 이공계 희망 여학생의 비율은 낮지만 학년 차이가 크지 않은 반면, 이공계 희망 남학생의 비율은 6학년이 3학년의 절반에 가까웠다. 의약계 희망 학생 비율은 남녀 학생 모두 6학년이 3학년보다 1.4배 많았다. 이러한 차이로 인해 3학년에서 이공계 희망 학생 비율은 의약계 학생의 두 배였지만 6학년에서는 두 계열이 거의 같았다. 진로 선택 이유에서 희망 직업이 이공계인 경우 하고 싶다는 이유가 가장 중요했고, 사회에 필요한 일이라는 점이 그 다음이었다. 의약계의 경우는 다른 사람을 도울 수 있다는 점과 하고 싶은 일이라는 점이거의 비슷했고 부모의 권유나 소득보다 두세 배 중요해서 이전 연구와 다른 결과를 보였다. 돕기는 여학생들이 중요하게 생각한 진로 선택 이유이기도 하다. 이는 과학관련 진로 지도에서 그 직업을 통해 사람들을 도울 수 있다는 점이 비중 있게 고려되어야 함을 시사한다. 과학과목 선호도는 이공계가 가장 높고, 의약계, 기타 진로의 순서이다. 수학과목 선호도는 과학 과목 선호도 보다 낮으며, 이공계와 의약계가 비슷하고, 기타가 그 보다 낮다. 학년이 올라갈수록 수학의 비중이 커지는 점을 고려할 때 초등학생의 이공계와 의약계 진로 희망이 지속되려면 과학과목과 더불어 수학을 좋아하고 잘하도록 지도할 필요가 있다. 과학에 대한 흥미와 과학적 포부는 3학년이 6학년보다, 남학생이 여학생보다 높으며, 이공계가 가장 높고, 의약계, 기타의 순으로 값이 낮아지는 분포를 보이고 있다. 그런데 이공계 집단만 포부 값이 흥미값보다 높고 학년별, 성별, 진로별로 나누어진 다른 모든 집단에서 포부값이 흥미값보다 낮다. 이는 과학에 대한 흥미보다 과학적 포부가 이공계 진로 결정에서 보다 결정적인 요인이 될 수 있는 가능성을 보여준다.

on the reasons for jobs, science/math preferences, interests in science, and science aspirations. For 3rd grade boys, twice more students picked Sci/Eng than Med choices. However, for 6th grade boys, the numbers of Sci/Eng and Med became close. The ratios of girls with Sci/Eng in 3rd and 6th grade did not differ much. The 6th graders chosing Med was 1.4 times bigger than 3rd graders for both boys and girls. For students with Sci/Eng, the most important reason for a job was that he/she liked it. For Med, helping others was as much important as doing what he/she liked. Science preference were the highest in the Sci/Eng group. The Med group came next with the non-science group being last. Math preferences were lower than the science preferences. Therefore, children need to be guided to increase the preferences for math as well as for science to keep the Sci/Eng and Med career choices. The interests in science and the science aspirations show similar patterns. The 3rd graders showed higher value than the 6th graders, the boys higher than girls, and the Sci/Eng group highest, the Med the second and non-science group the last. Science aspirations were higher than the interests only for the Sci/Eng group, while it was lower than the interests in all other groups. This implies that science aspirations might have bigger influence on getting a career in Sci/Eng than interest does.

 

초등학생들이 인식하는 과학 관련 활동에 대한 조사

An Investigation of Science-related Activities Perceived by Elementary School Students

양찬호, 배유진, 김찬종, 최승언, 김희백, 유준희, 이경우, 계영희, 노태희, 초등과학교육, Volume 32, Number 4 (2013)

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated science-related activities in everyday life perceived by elementary school students, and their preference and participation in the activities. We also analyzed the differences by student`s gender and interest in science. We developed a questionnaire of what activities elementary school students participated in daily experiences and how they perceived the connections of the activities with science. The questionnaire that was asked to rate the degrees of science-relatedness, preference, and participation of 35 activities was administered to fifth graders. The analysis of the results revealed that they perceived various everyday activities in their home and community as well as school were related to science. They generally preferred and participated in the activities. Boys perceived some activities, such as building things with magnets, Legos, or other toy and tools, more closely related to science, and the degrees of their preference and participation in these activities were higher than those of girls. It was also found that the students who were more interested in science not only perceived more activities related to science but also preferred and participated in the activities more. Educational implications of these findings are discussed.

 

국립과천과학관의 테슬라코일 전시물 설명판에 대한관람객의 주목도 분석

An Analysis in Visitors` Attentions on Exhibit Panels of a Tesla Coil in the Gwacheon National Science Museum

이일, 유준희, 정광훈, 한국과학교육학회지, Volume 32, Number 1 (2012)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is to explore factors which influence visitors` attention on exhibition panels by analyzing visitors` attention according to topic types and visitor group types. The subjects of this research are exhibition panels of a Tesla Coil exhibition in the Gwacheon National Science Museum. The exhibition panels` topic are basic concepts, explanations of phenomena, operating principles, applications and historical background. These topics are selected through a survey of visitors` intellectual needs for a Tesla Coil. Five new exhibition panels according to the topics are developed and visitor groups` behaviors in front of the panels are recoded in natural situations. The total participant groups are 586 groups, which includes individual student (30.0%), individual adult (20.6%), student group (28.2%), adult group(2.4%), and family group (18.8%). Visitors` attention to exhibition panels is sub-categorized into attracting power and holding power. Attracting power is defined by the percentile of group numbers who attend to an exhibition panel more than 3 seconds to the total group numbers who attend to an exhibition panel for more than a glance. Holding power is defined by average attention time and decay time. The attracting powers of historical background and application panels are 72.3% and 68.8% respectively, while that of the basic concept panel is 47%. Average attention times of explanation of phenomena and operating principle are 37.0 and 34.2 seconds, while those of historical background and application panels are 25.4 seconds. The decay times of each panel shows the same patterns of average attention times. Attracting powers of panels easy to approach and holding powers of panels with in-depth scientific concepts seems to be high. Attracting powers of the individual adult, family, and student group are 66.9%, 66.4% and 62.4% respectively, while the attracting power of the adult group and individual student are 57.1%, and 55.7%. Average attention times of the student group, family, adult groups are 34.0, 33.0, 31.6 seconds respectively, while that of individual student is 19.5 seconds. The decay times of each group shows the same patterns of average attention times. Both of attracting powers and average attention times of the student group and family group are high, while both of individual student are low. Tentatively, attracting powers of exhibition panels seems to be influenced more by topic types of panels, and holding power seems to be influenced more by group type. But these results are very limited and further studies are needed.

 

중학생 과학탐구활동 수행평가 시 총체적 채점에서 나타나는 채점자간 불일치 유형 분석

An Analysis on Rater Error in Holistic Scoring for Performance Assessments of Middle School Students` Science Investigation Activities

김형준, 유준희, 한국과학교육학회지, Volume 32, Number 1 (2012)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to understand raters` errors in rating performance assessments of science inquiry. For this, 60 middle school students performed scientific inquiry about sound propagation and 4 trained raters rated their activity sheets. Variance components estimation for the result of the generalizability analysis for the person, task, rater design, the variance components for rater, rater by person and rater by task are about 25%. Among 4 raters, 2 raters` severity is higher than the other two raters and their severities were stabilized. Four raters` rating agreed with each other in 51 cases among the 240 cases. Through the raters` conferences, the rater error types for 189 disagreed cases were identified as one of three types; different salience, severity, and overlooking. The error type 1, different salience, showed 38% of the disagreed cases. Salient task and salient assessment components are different among the raters. The error type 2, severity, showed 25% and the error type 3, overlooking showed 31%. The error type 2 seemed to have happened when the students responses were on the borders of two levels. Error type 3 seemed to have happened when raters overlooked some important part of students` responses because she or he immersed her or himself in one`s own salience. To reduce the above rater errors, raters` conference in salience of task and assesment components are needed before performing the holistic scoring of complex tasks. Also raters need to recognize her/his severity and efforts to keep one`s own severity. Multiple raters are needed to prevent the errors from being overlooked. The further studies in raters` tendencies and sources of different interpretations on the rubric are suggested.

 

심장 혈액 흐름의 모형 구성 과정에서 나타난 소집단 상호작용과 소집단 규범

Small Group Interaction and Norms in the Process of Constructing a Model for Blood Flow in the Heart

강은희, 김찬종, 최승언, 유준희, 박현주, 이신영, 김희백, Volume 32, Number 2 (2012)

ABSTRACT

이 연구는 자연스러운 소집단 탐구 맥락에서 형성된 집단의 고유한 규범을 밝혀내고, 소집단 규범이 과학적 모형 구성에 미치는 영향을 알아보는 것을 목적으로 한다. 이를 위해 학생들의 상호작용을 잘 드러낼 수 있는 심장 혈액 흐름의 모형 구성 수업을 개발하였고, 서울 소재 중학교 2학년을 대상으로 수업을 진행하였다. 이 가운데 임의로 10개의 소집단을 추출하여 학생들의 담화와 활동을 녹음하고 비디오 촬영을 하였다. 수집한 자료는 먼저 집단의 상호작용 유형을 분류하였고, 각 유형을 대표적으로 보여주는 5개 집단에서 나타나는 규범과 모형의 특징을 분석하였다. 연구 결과, 집단마다 다양한 상호작용 유형을 보였으며, 소집단에서 구성한 모형의 질과 협력 및 모형 구성을 위한 규범 또한 집단마다 다르게 나타났다. 동일한 교사의 지도를 받는 탐구 맥락에서 학생들이 동일한 과제를 진행한다고 하더라도, 각 집단의 인지적인 책임감, 정당화에 대한 필요성, 협력과 참여, 멤버십에 대한 규범이 바탕이 되어 집단마다 다른 담화와 행동을 보였다. 또한, 한 집단을 제외하고, 모형 구성을 위한 인지적 책임감과 정당화와 같은 규범은 잘 발달하지 않았다. 이러한 규범은 궁극적으로 집단 모형 구성에 영향을 미쳤다. 구성원들의 적극적인 참여를 독려하여 협력을 촉진하고, 인지적 책임감을 가지고 자신의 의견을 정당화하면서 모형 구성을 촉진하는 규범을 형성하고 있는 집단은 구성원들의 추론적 사고를 촉발하였고 보다 목표 모형에 가까운 집단의 공동 모형을 구성하였다. 이 연구 결과는 소집단 활동을 통한 학습을 촉진하는 교실 환경을 구축하고, 이와 관련된 교사 교육 방안을 모색하는데 시사점을 제공한다.

This study aims to identify unique small group norms and their influence on the process of constructing a scientific model. We developed instructional materials for the construction of a model of blood flow in the heart and conducted research on eighth-grade students from one middle school. We randomly selected 10 small groups, and videotaped and recorded their dialogues and behaviors. The data was categorized according to the types of interaction and then analyzed to investigate the characteristics of group norms and models in one or two representative groups for each type. The results show that the types of interaction, the quality of the group models, and the group norms were different in each group. Even though one teacher guided students through the same task in the inquiry context, each group revealed different patterns of discourse and behavior, which were based on norms of cognitive responsibility, the need for justification, participation, and membership. With the exception of one group, there was little cognitive responsibility and justification for students` opinions. Ultimately, these norms influenced the model construction of small groups. A group that forms norms to encourage the active participation and justify members` opinions with cognitive responsibility was encouraged to do inferential thinking and construct a group model close to the target model. This study has instructional implications for the establishment of a classroom environment that facilitates learning through small group activities.

 

과학적 모형의 사회적 공동구성 수업에서 나타나는 과학 영재 학생들의 상호작용 역할과 개인의 내적, 관계적 요인 사이의 관련성

Relation between the Personal and Social Factors and the Interacting Role of Science Gifted Students in Social Co-construction of Scientific Model Class

유희원, 차현정, 김민석, 함동철, 김희백, 유준희, 박현주, 김찬종, 최승언, 영재교육연구, Volume 22, Number 2 (2012)

ABSTRACT

본 연구에서는 과학영재학생들의 내적 및 관계적 요소가 상호작용에 미치는 영향을 파악하고 자 하였다. 이를 위해 달의 위상변화와 출몰 시각 변화에 대하여 사회적 공동구성과 과학적 모델링을 강조한 수업에서 나타나는 과학 영재학생들의 상호작용에서의 역할을 분석하고 유 형별로 범주화하였으며, 선행 연구를 바탕으로 도출한 성격유형 · 자아개념 · 친구관계 · 부모관 계 · 교사관계의 5가지 요소를 설문지와 심층 인터뷰를 통해 파악한 뒤 상호작용의 양상과 학 생들에게서 나타난 각 요소의 연관성을 파악하였다. 분석 결과, 평소 친구와의 친밀도와 학교 수업 참여도가 상호작용과 연관성이 높은 요소로 나타났으며 성격유형이나 자아개념, 부모관 계의 영향은 상대적으로 적었다. 본 연구를 통해 학생들의 상호작용을 활발하게 만들기 위해 서는 개인 내부의 다양한 요인까지 고려해야 하며, 이를 위해 필요한 전략도 간접적으로 확 인할 수 있었다.

This study try to analyze the effect that personal and social factors affects the interactions among science gifted students. For this, I analyze the interacting role of science gifted students in social co-construction and scientific model constructing class for phase change and rising-sinking time of moon and categorize according to type. I analyze aspects of interaction and association of each elements in the students after I understand character type · self conception · friendship · a parents-children relationship relation with teachers derived from advanced research through questionnaire and depth interview. After analyzing, I find the following- close friendship form or not and usual school class participation appear important factors that have strong connection with the aspect of the interactions. Also, character type, self conception and relation of parents affect the interactions relatively lower. Through this study, We identify two things. Firstly, We must consider individual's inside factors for making animatedly the interaction among the students. Secondly, We get considering factors that devise the strategies for making the interaction animatedly.

 

달의 위상 변화에 대한 과학적 모형 구성 수업에서 나타나는 과학 영재들의 모형 생성 및 발달 과정

Model Creation and Model Developing Process of Science Gifted Students in Scientific Model Constructing Class for Phase Change of the Moon

유희원, 함동철, 차현정, 김민석, 김희백, 유준희, 박현주, 김찬종, 최승언, 영재교육연구, Volume 22, Number 2 (2012)

ABSTRACT

본 연구에서는 달의 위상 변화에 대한 과학적 모형 구성 수업에서 나타나는 영재 학생들의 모형 생성 및 발달 과정의 특징과 학생과 교사의 활동이 이 과정에 미치는 영향에 대해 알아 보고자 하였다. 이를 위해 과학영재 학생을 대상으로 과학적 모형 구성 수업을 실시하였다. 수업 전체 및 모둠별 활동을 영상 촬영, 음성 녹음하였으며 선택한 모둠에 대한 면담을 실시 하고 학생들의 활동지를 분석 자료로 활용하여 모둠별·개인별 학생들의 모형 생성 및 발달 과정을 재구성하였으며, 학생들의 활동 양상과 교사의 역할이 여기에 미치는 영향을 도출하 였다. 모둠 내에서의 토론이 모둠의 모형 생성 및 발달과정에 기여하며, 표적 모형과 초기모 형의 유사성 정도에 따라 개인 모형의 발달 과정이 달라졌다. 모둠활동에 적극적으로 참여하 는 학생이 많을수록 초기 모형은 다양해지고 최종 모형도 더욱 정교하게 나타났으며, 교사는 모형의 생성 및 발달과정에 큰 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다.

This study try to analyze feature of model creation and model developing process for gifted students and the activity of students and teachers affected those processes in scientific model constructing class for phase change of moon. For this, I teach scientific model constructing class for science gifted students. I shoot video and record the voice for whole class and each group activity, have a face-to-face talk for selected group members, analyze the paper of activities. I reconstruct model creation and model developing process for each groups and each students, draw a influence that activity aspects of the students and role of the teacher affected modelling process based on those data. After analyzing, I find that discussion in the group contribute model creation and model developing process and developing process of each model changed according to the similarity between target model and first model. The more the students actively participate group activities, the more first model is diversified and final model is more elaborated. Also, the teacher influence model creation and developing process.

 

중학교 과학 교과서 물질 영역의 과학적 모형 유형 분석

Analysis of Scientific Models in Science Textbooks for the 7th Grade

김애정, 박현주, 김찬종, 김희백, 유준희, 최승언, 대한화학회지, Volume 56, Number 3 (2012)

ABSTRACT

2007개정 과학과 교육과정에 따른 중학교 1학년 과학 교과서 11종을 대상으로, '물질 영역'에 속하는 '물질의 세 가지 상태', '분자의 운동', '상태변화와 에너지'라는 세 단원에 제시된 모형의 유형 및 특성을 조사하고 과학적 모형 분석틀을 개발하였다. 연구를 통해 개발되어진 과학적 모형 분석틀은 표상 양식과 표상의 속성으로 나누어져있으며, 표상 양식은 활동 모형, 비유적 모형, 상징적 모형, 이론적 모형으로 분류하고, 표상의 속성은 정적 모형과 동적모형으로 분류하였다. 개발되어진 과학적 모형 분석틀을 가지고 교과서에서 사용되고 있는 모형의 유형과 빈도수를 분석하였다. 연구 결과, 표상 양식에서는 활동 모형과 비유적 모형이 가장 많이 사용되었고, 표상의 속성에서는 동적 모형이 많이 사용되고 있었다. 물질 영역에서는 입자 개념을 다루며 학생들이 일상생활에서 접하는 거시적인 현상들을 분자의 배열이나 운동과 같은 미시적 관점으로 이해하는 것을 목표로 하고 있다. 이 연구의 결과는 현 교과서들에 나타난 과학적 모형 사용의 제한점과 바람직한 방향을 모색하게 할 뿐 아니라, 앞으로 집필되어질 교과서와 수업을 구성하는데 유용한 정보를 제공해 줄 것이다.

The purpose of the study was to classify scientific models in the seventh grade science textbooks of the 2007 revised science curriculum. The three chapters of 'three states of material', 'motion of molecule', and 'change of state and energy' were investigated. There were two types of the scientific model as 'mode of representation' and 'attribute of representation'. The mode of representation was composed of 'action model', 'analogical model', 'symbolic model', and 'theoretical model' and the attribute of representation was composed of 'static model' and 'dynamic model'. The results showed that the action model and the analogical model were used primarily in mode of representation. The dynamic model were widely used in attribute of representation. Area of matters dealt with conception of molecules and aimed for students to understand the arrangement and movement of molecule microscopically about macroscopic state in a daily life. Tis study could help to recognize the limitations of scientific models on current textbooks and offer more useful information in planning lessons and organizing textbooks for the future.

 

중학생의 소집단 자유탐구활동 중 물리 영역 탐구문제의 구성과 변인 추출 및 명료화 과정

Middle School Students` Construction of Physics Inquiry Problems and Variables Isolation and Clarification during Small Group Open-inquiry Activities

유준희, 김종숙, 한국과학교육학회지, Volume 32, Number 5 (2012)

ABSTRACT

본 연구는 2007년 개정 교육과정에서 도입된 자유탐구활동의 지도방안에 대한 시사점을 얻기 위하여 중학생의 소집단 자유탐구 활동 중 물리 영역 탐구문제 구성과정을 변인의 추출 및 명료화의 관점에서 분석하였으며, 변인의 명료화가 진행되는 단계에서 학생의 어려움을 조사하였다. 본 연구의 참여 학생은 서울 소재 대학 영재원 과학반 소속 중학생 4명이며‘계란낙하’라는 하나의 주제를 가지고 13차시, 30시간 동안 자유탐구활동을 진행하였다. 학생들의 탐구문제구성에서 나타난 변인의 추출 및 명료화 과정을 분석하기 위하여 선행연구를 토대로 변인 추출의 수준 및 변인의 명료화 수준에 대한 분석틀을 제안하였다. 학생들은 과학적 탐구의 과정을 반복적이고 점진적으로 수행하면서 탐구문제를 5차례 변경하였다. 종속변인이 독립변인보다 먼전 추출되었으며 변인 추출의 수준 및 명료화의 수준도 높게 나타났다. 학생들은 여러 종류의 독립변인들을 외연적 수준에서 추출하는 것으로 나타났는데, 이는 학생들은 이론적 설명 모형의 부재로 중요한 독립변인을 추출하는 것을 어려워하며 그 때문에 독립변인과 통제변인을 구분하지 못하는 현상도 함께 나타나는 것으로 해석할 수 있다. 학생들은 탐구주제의 선택 뿐 만 아니라 종속변인과 독립변인의 추출 및 정의하는데 현실적 여건에 의해 제약을 받는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 학생들은 종속변인이나 독립변인을 추출하는데 있어서 모두 감각적인 현상이나 외연적 특성인 깨지는 것, 높이 등이 부각되는 것으로 판단되었다. 종속변인의 이론적 정의나 조작적 정의를 하는데 있어서 해당 지식이 부족하여 어려움을 겪었으며, 그 결과 해당하는 변인의 과학 사전적 정의를 이해해도 해당 탐구상황에 적용하여 설명모형을 만들어내지는 못하였는데, 이는 이후 독립변인 및 통제 변인을 추출하는데 영향을 준 것으로 판단된다. 이론적 설명모형의 부재는 학생들의 이론적 배경에 대한 이해의 부족에서도 비롯되지만, 과학적 탐구가 시행착오적인 해보기나 무작정적인 변인사이의 관계 설정하기가 아닌 이론에 근거한 실증적 활동이라는 인식이 부족한 것에 기인한다고 판단할 수 있다.

The study aimed to analyze middle school students construction of physics inquiry problems for open inquiry from the viewpoint of variable isolation and clarification, and investigate students` difficulties during the processes of variable isolation and clarification to get implications for teaching and learning strategies for small group open inquiry activities which have been included in the 2007 national curriculum. The participants were 4 students who had attended an outreach program for the science gifted run by a university institution located in Seoul area. They performed an open inquiry on egg drop for 13 lessons for 30 hours. Level descriptions for variable isolation and clarification have been developed and applied to analyze students` inquiry problems and variables included by the problems. Students iterated inquiry processed 5 times and the inquiry problem showed progress gradually. Dependent variables have been isolated ahead and the levels of variable isolation and clarification showed higher than the independent variables. Many kinds of independent variables isolated extensively and the independent variables and control variables have been mingled. One of the reasons why students had some difficulties in isolation of independent variables could be the absence of theoretical models. The realities of school lab could restrict the variable isolation and clarification as well as topic selections. Some sensory or extensive variables such as broken eggs and drop height seem to be salient to be focused on as core variables. Lack of background knowledges could be one of the reasons for students` difficulties in variable clarification, such as theoretical definitions and operational definitions. As a result of lacking background knowledges, students could not construct theoretical models even though they could isolate and clarify variables as scientific lexical definitions. Some perceptions of inquiry as trial and error or reckless establishment of causal relations between variables could be accounted as one reason.

 

소집단 상호작용에 따른 심장 내 혈액 흐름에 대한 소집단 모델 발달 유형과 추론 과정 탐색

Exploring the Patterns of Group model Development about Blood Flow in the Heart and Reasoning Process by Small Group Interaction

이신영, 김찬종, 최승언, 유준희, 박현주, 강은희, 김희백, 한국과학교육학회지, Volume 32, Number 5 (2012)

ABSTRACT

이 연구의 목적은 소집단 상호작용에 따른 심장 내 혈액 흐름에 대한 모델 발달 유형과 추론 과정을 탐색해보는 것이다. 서울 소재의 지역 구청 영재원 8학년 학생들 14명이 3명이나 4명으로 한 소집단을 이루어 함께 탐구 활동을 하였다. 이들은 비유 모델 활동을 하면서 석유 펌프 내에서의 한 방향 물의 흐름에 대한 공동 모델을 구성하고, 돼지 심장을 직접 해부하여 실제 심장 내에서의 혈액의 흐름에 대한 공동 모델을 구성하였다. 소집단 상호작용은 학생들이 공동 모델을 구성하는 데에 중요한 요인이 되었으며, 모델의 비판적 검토, 모델의 제시자, 리더의 유형이 상호작용에 영향을 미쳤으며, 모델 발달 유형은 정체형, 첨가형, 정교형이 나왔다. 정교형 모델 발달에서는 모델 제시자 뿐만 아니라 다른 학생들도 모델을 비판적으로 검토하였으며, 여러 학생들이 모델을 제시하고, 설득적이거나 포용적인 리더가 존재하여 다양한 학생들이 모델링에 참여함으로써 모델이 정교화 되거나 목표 모델에 가까워지게 되었다. 소집단 모델링에서의 추론 과정을 분석한 결과 1단계 모델링에서 높은 수준의 논변이 나타났다. 탐구 활동의 속성상 비유 모델인 석유 펌프는 심장 구조보다 단순하고, 구조와 물의 흐름이 관찰 가능하여 학생들이 직접 경험에 의한 자발적 추론을 할 수 있어서 논변 활동이 활발하게 나타났다. 또한, 높은 수준의 추론 과정에서 내부 갈등 상황이 나타났는데, 이것으로 인해 학생들은 자신의 주장을 정교화 하였으며, 초기 설명 모델이 목표 모델에 가깝게 되면서 모델의 질이 향상되었다. 그러므로 석유 펌프와 같은 비유 모델 활동은 협력적인 모델링이 나타나게 해주는 좋은 학습 도구이므로 교수 학습 과정에서 적극적으로 활용해야 한다. 또한 공동으로 모델을 구성하는 과정에서 학생들의 생각이 정교화 되고, 설명 모델이 과학적으로 가까워지는 계기가 되므로 적절한 소집단 모델링 프로그램을 개발하고 현장에 적용해 보는 것이 필요할 것이다.

The purpose of this study was to explore the patterns of group model development about blood flow in the heart and reasoning process by small group interaction. The subjects were 14, 8th graders in a Science Gifted Center. The group discussion was made possible by using triggering questions that can be answered based on experiences of hands-on activities such as a siphon pump analogy model activity and a dissection of pigs` hearts. Despite participating in same activities, the groups showed different model development patterns: unchanged, persuasive, and elaborated. Due to the critical revising, the group`s explanatory model was elaborated and developed in the added and elaborated pattern. As critical revising is a core element of the developing model, it is important to promote a group interaction so that students become critical and receptive. The pedagogical analogy model and conflict situation enabled students to present elaborated reasoning. The Inquiry activity with the pedagogical analogy model promote students` spontaneous reasoning in relation to direct experience. Therefore offering a pedagogical analogy model will help students evaluate, revise and develop their models of concerned phenomena in science classroom. Conflict situation by rebuttal enable students to justify more solid and elaborate a model close to the target model. Therefore, teachers need to facilitate a group atmosphere for spontaneous conflict situation.

 

중학생의 힘과 운동 현상 관련 과학적 모형구성 수준의 상세화

Middle School Students' Learning Progressions for Scientific Modeling Force and Motion

배대성, 유준희, 새물리, Volume 62, Number 8 (2012)

ABSTRACT

The purposes of this study are to investigate middle school students' learning progressions for modeling force and motion phenomena and to identify students' difficulties by analyzing Korean middle school students' problem solving involving a forces and motion phenomenon in a everyday context. A test item based on previous research was developed. The participants were 59 high achieving of middle school students. Students' responses were rated and analyzed by using the developed assessment framework and rubric according to the Modeling Schemata of Halloun. Middle school students' learning progressions for modeling were classified into five levels by analyzing item characteristic curves and the distribution of students by levels. Specific features of each level and difficulties in modeling were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Middle school students' learning progressions for force and motion were classified into "Identification of Model Composition", "Concept Representations", "Modeling with Some Concept Organization", "Modeling with Scientific Concept Organization," and Modeling with Scientific Model Structure". Students seemed to have difficulties in identification of invisible model composition except the concept of speed and represented them as idealized concepts. Also, the causal facets of model structure and concept organization appeared as students' difficulties, which is thought to be caused by students' ideas about force and motion in a conceptual world.

 

물리1 교과서의 관내 정상파 삽화에 대한 고등학생의 해석과 이해

High School Students' Interpretations and Understandings of Physics Textbooks' Illustrations of Standing Waves in a Pipe

박정우, 유준희, 새물리, Volume 61, Number 9 (2011)

ABSTRACT

Physics textbooks' illustrations of standing waves in a pipe are not easy to understand because even a single illustration includes various representations such as the macro level, micro levels, concrete ways and abstract ways with line, arrows and coloring. The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' interpretations and understandings of illustrations of standing waves in a pipe. The participants were 145 high school students who learned standing waves in a pipe during the physics 1 course. Their recalled knowledge about standing waves, which was stimulated by one illustration, and their interpretations of the illustration components were surveyed by using questionnaires. The responses were compared with the editor's intention for that illustration. To investigate tentatively the relations between students' interpretations and understandings of illustrations, participants were asked to explain the movements of eight individual air particles in a pipe. Wave length formulas, an example of macro and abstract representation, were recalled by 67 % of the participants. Only 6 %, 9 %, and 1 % of the participants interpreted the lines, arrows, and coloring in the illustration in accord with the editor's intent. Students showed a tendency to interpret illustrations on a macro level and in concrete ways rather than on a micro level and in abstract ways. Various models were given when students explained the movements of individual particles. At most 2 % of the participants seem to have scientific models while most of the participants uses mixed models. When students constructed their own models for explaining the movements of individual particles, they seemed to consider one or two illustration components rather than all components. Some students did not seem to consider the given illustration at all, or they constructed their own models, neglecting inconsistencies between the illustration and their own models.

 

유물 편경의 음향 분석을 통한 아악 황종음고의 추정

Estimation of Nominal Frequency of Whangjongeum by Acoustical Analysis of Old Pyeongyeongs

유준희, 박정우, 배대성, 김형준, 성굉모, 노정욱, 고현우, 한국음향학회지, Volume 30, Number 8 (2011)

ABSTRACT

본 연구의 목적은 국내 여러 기관에 분산 소장 중인 편경 유물을 체계적으로 파악하고, 음향을 측정 분석하여 황종음고의 기본 진동수를 추정하는 것이다. 이를 위하여 국립고궁박물관, 국립국악원, 국립국악고등학교에 소장 중인 241매 유물 경석의 간지별, 율명별 분포를 파악하였다. 보다 타당한 대푯값을 찾기 위하여 17매의 유물 황종 경석에서 측정한 기본 진동수를 군집 분석하였으며, 간지별로 경석을 분류하여 삼분손익법으로 황종음고를 역추정하였다. 경석의 간지와 기록이 일치하는 계축년 간지의 경석 22개로 추정한 황종음고의 기본진동수는 266.9 Hz, 정유년 경석과 갑자년 경석으로 추정한 값은 262.4~262.5 Hz, 20세기에 해당하는 간지인 갑진년, 소화 12년, 소화 13년 경석으로 추정한 값은 258.7~259.3 Hz 등 시대에 따라 변해온 것으로 추정된다. 과거 유물에 대한 접근이 어려웠던 시대에 일부 유물로 황종음고를 추정한 것에 대해서 본 연구는 경석 유물 전수에 대한 음향 분석을 바탕으로 황종음고를 추정한 것에 의의가 있다.

This study aimed to figure out the numbers and note distributions and sexagenary cycles of old pyeongyoungs systematically, and estimate the nominal frequency of whangjongeum, the Korean tradition pitch standard. As a total 214 old stones in the National Palace Museum, the National Kukak Center, the Kukak National High School were counted by notes and sexagenaries. The nominal frequencies of 17 old whangjong stones' sounds were categorized by cluster analysis method. Using nominal frequencies of stones according to their sexagenaries and Korean traditional intonation were used to estimate the nominal frequencies of the whangjong. The nominal frequency can be estimated by 22 Keychuk stones as 266.9 Hz, by Cheongyu and Gabja stones as 262.4~262.5 Hz, and by Gabjin, Sowha 12 and Sowha 13 as Estimating by 22 Kyechuk stones which were matched with the records. These results seem to be more reliable, because it is based on the whol samples of old pyeongyoungs, while the former studies have been based on couples of whangjong stones' sounds.

 

중학생 과학탐구활동 수행평가 시 채점 방식 및 척도의 수에 따른 신뢰도 분석

An Analysis on Reliabilities of Scoring Methods and Rubric Ratings Number for Performance Assessments of Middle School Students` Science Investigation Activities

김형준, 유준희, 한국과학교육학회지, Volume 30, Number 2 (2010)

ABSTRACT

In this study, reliabilities of holistic scoring method and analytic scoring method were analyzed in performance assessments of middle school students' science investigation activity. Reliabilities of 2, 3, and 4~7-level rubric ratings for analytic scoring methods were compared to figure out optimized numbers of rubric ratings. Two trained raters rated four activity sheets of 60 students by two rating methods and three kinds of rubric ratings. Internal consistency reliabilities of holistic scoring methods were higher than those of analytic scoring methods, while intrarater reliabilities of analytic scoring were higher than those of holistic scoring methods. Internal consistency reliabilities and intra-rater reliabilities of 3-level rubric rating showed similar patterns of 4~7-level rubric ratings. But students' discriminations, item difficulties and item-response curves showed that the 3-level rubric ratings was reliable. These results suggest that holistic scoring method could be adapted to increase internal consistency reliabilities with improvement in intra-rater reliabilities by rater's conferences. Also, the 3-level rubric rating would be enough for good reliability in case of adapting analytic scoring methods.

 

구체적 대 추상적, 거시적 대 미시적 관점에서 분석한 소리 나는 관 안의 공기 운동에 대한 물리1 교과서와 교사의 설명 분석

An Analysis of Physics Textbooks’ and of Teachers’ Representations of Sound Waves in Pipes from the Views of Concrete vs. Abstract and Microscopic vs. Macroscopic

박정우, 유준희, 새물리, Volume 60, Number 9 (2010)

ABSTRACT

According to previous research, many students seem to have difficulties in understanding and explaining scientifically the movement of air particles in longitudinal wave displacements of air particles. In this study, nine high-school physics textbooks’ and five teachers’ explanations for sound waves in pipes were analyzed to determine the sources of students’ difficulties and to obtain the implications for teaching sound waves. For this, the illustrations of air particles’ vibrations and of standing waves in the physics I textbooks of the 7th National Curriculum and the explanations of teachers who taught physics were analysed from the viewpoints of the levels of representations, microscopic vs. macroscopic, the ways of representing the entity, concrete vs. abstract, and the connections and the transfers between levels and representations. All nine textbooks and five teachers used graphs to explain entities on a microscopic level through abstract representations. Also, they used wave equations to explain entities on a macroscopic level through abstract representations. On the other hand, four textbooks and three teachers used concrete representations to explain entities on a microscopic level, and only one teacher used concrete representations to explain entities on a macroscopic level. There were no connections between concrete and abstract representations in the textbooks, but one teacher tried to connect concrete and abstract representations. Applying the views of analysis to the 7th grade students, we found that students seemed to be unable to connect concrete and abstract representations or they made connections between the representations in the wrong ways or they just seemed to recite the representations of the textbooks or they interpreted abstract representations as concrete ones. To clarify the views of illustrations and explanations, such as microscopic vs. macroscopic, and concrete vs. abstract, would be a step to improving students’ understandings of sound waves in pipes.

 

세종대왕기념관의 유물 편종과 현대 편종의 음향 스펙트럼 비교

Comparison of Sound Spectrums of Pyeonjong Remains at the King Sejong Memorial Museum and Pyeonjong Replica

유준희, 한국음향학회지, Volume 28, Number 3 (2009)

ABSTRACT

본 논문에서는 편종의 조율 방안을 모색하기 위하여 유물 편종과 현대 편종의 음향 스펙트럼을 비교분석하였다. 유물 편종은 세종대왕기념관에서 소장하고 있는 편종을, 현대 편종은 국립국악원에서 연주되는 편종을 사용하였다. 음향 스펙트럼과 TV 홀로그래피를 이용한 모드분석을 통해 현대 편종의 모드진동수와 모드형상을 파악하였다. 유물 편종의 경우는 음향 스펙트럼 분석만 하였다. 각각의 음고에 해당하는 현대 종과 유물 종의 기명진동수는 9.8 센트부터 203 센트까지 차이를 나타냈다. 유물 편종의 조율 상태가 양호하지 못한 점, 현대 국악에서 기준 황종음고를 서양의 C4로 정하는 경향 등을 그 차이의 원인으로 해석할 수 있다. 편종의 음색을 결정하는 고차 모드진동수의 기명진동수에 대한 상대적인 비율을 조사한 결과, (3,0)a와 (3,0)b모드를 제외한 모든 고차 모드진동수에서 유의미한 차이를 나타냈다. 이 차이는 통계적으로 유의미할 뿐만 아니라 최소가지진동수 이상이었다 이것은 유물 편종과 현대 편종 사이에 음색의 차이가 있음을 시사한다. 조율방안을 모색하기 위해서는 보다 많은 유물 편종에 대한 추가적인 음향 분석, 주물 분석 및 구조에 대한 연구가 필요하다.

This study compared the sound spectrums of pyeonjong remains and pyeonjong replica to investigate tuning ways of bells. pyeonjong remains, exhibited at King Sejong Memorial Museum and pyeonjong replica, played at the National Center for Korean Traditional Performance Arts were analyzed. To get mode frequencies and mode shapes, pyeonjong replicas' sound spectrums were analyzed and modal analyses by TV holography were performed. Also pyeonjong remains' sound spectrum were analyzed. Nominal frequencies on the pyeonjong replica and remains showed differences in a range between 9.8 cent and 203 cent. Two facts were inferred as causes of the differences, the tuning conditions of pyeonjong remains were not good and C4 in western tempered scale was preferred as the sound standard of Kukak, whangjong. Relative ratio of higher mode frequencies to the nominal frequencies were calculated to figure out tonal differences between two pyeonjongs. The differences in relative ratio of higher mode frequencies except (3,0)a and (3,0)b modes were significants as well as beyond the just noticeable difference. These results implied that the tonal differences between two pyeonjongs could exist. More pyeonjong remains are needed to be investigated to confirm this result in addition to the analyses of alloy components and bell structure of pyeonjong remains and replica.

 

중학교 통합학급에서 과학 수업 중 정신 지체 학생의 학습 활동 분석

Analysis of Learning Activities of Mentally Retarded Students in Inclusive Middle School Science Classes

장상경, 유준희, 한국과학교육학회지, Volume 29, Number 5 (2009)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to analyze activities of mentally retarded students studying science within inclusive classes from the aspect of activity sharing to investigate ways of improving their involvement in the tasks. For this study, three mentally retarded students and their peer group in inclusive classes were observed and videotaped for 12 science class sessions about forces and waves. There were many cases in which task involvement of mentally retarded students changed according to three degrees of their activity sharing: well-synchronized, delayed and estranged. When degrees of activity sharing were estranged or delayed, task involvement of the mentally retarded students faded from activeness to passiveness. When the degree of activity sharing was well-synchronized, the mentally retarded students showed interest in learning and were able to participate in science class more actively. Different patterns of activity sharing of mentally retarded students between teacher-centered activities and studentcentered activities were observed. In most cases of teacher-centered activities, the monotonous pace could deprive the mentally retarded students of their chance to catch up. As a result, their delayed degrees of activity sharing were faded into estranged degrees. In many cases of student-centered activities, various pacing according to the groups or students could provide mentally retarded students with a chance to catch up, so they could be well-synchronized. In one case of teacher-centered activity, the mentally retarded students were well-synchronized with the teacher's repeated explanations and well-matched illustrations on the blackboard and textbooks. In some cases of studentcentered activities, students were well-synchronized with positive relations with and appropriate intervention by other students. In conclusion, various approaches to encourage activity sharing of mentally retarded students with normal ones should be pursued to improve task involvement and academic achievement of mentally retarded students. 

 

관 내 공기 진동 및 종파에 대한 중학교 상위권 학생들의 이해

Middle-school High-achievers’ Understandings of Air-particles’ Vibrational Motions and Longitudinal Waves in a Pipe

박정우, 유준희, 새물리, Volume 59, Number 4 (2009)

ABSTRACT

Generally, many students experience more di?culties in understanding longitudinal waves, in which displacements of the medium are not easily visible, than in understanding transverse waves. The purpose of this study is to investigate middle-school high-achievers’ understanding of air-particles’ vibration in a longitudinal sound wave. 220 high achievers of the 8th grade, who were referred by their own school principals in Seoul area, were asked to draw and explain the vibration of air particles in a closed pipe. The answers were categorized and analyzed using a network analysis. About 86 % of the sample students explained the air-particles’ vibration from a microscopic view. 76 % of those appeared to have a forward model and 16 % appeared to have transverse or other type of vibration rather than longitudinal vibration. About 3 % of the sample showed a mixed model of microscopic view and macroscopic view, and 11 % showed mixed model of a microscopic view and a symbolic view. This result suggests that many students misunderstand sound wave propagation and air-particles motion as medium and that the connection between the microscopic view and the microscopic view might be a way of identifying a sound wave as longitudinal wave.

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